2) At absolute zero, the interatomic distance is minimized inside a crystal. If the thermal capacity at z, Cz, low T was constant and if (∂Z/∂T) was positive in this area, then it would be possible to reach absolute zero temperature. However, it is a human experience that Cz varies for all materials with temperature like T-a, a ≥ 1, like T → 0. So it all depends on whether (∂Z/∂T) z > 0 is faster than the amount of T1-a that deviates to the T-0 value. As an experience of humanity, the answer is found as affirmative. It is therefore impossible to reach the T-0 limit. We first wonder if the state corresponding to T-0 can be reached. Consider a system characterized by z deformation coordination with the conjugated variable Z, so that the work element is specified by the “W-Zdz” function. The energy of the system is then functionally expressed by E -E (S, z) – E (S (T (T,z), z; Thus, according to the third law of thermodynamics, the entropy of a system is closer in the inner balance of a constant independent of the phase, because the absolute temperature tends to zero. This constant value is considered zero for a non-degenerate soil condition, in accordance with statistical mechanics. The independence of the phase is illustrated by Fermi`s extrapolation of the entropy of the grey and white tin, as the temperature is reduced to absolute zero. The third law is based on Nernst`s postulate to explain the empirical rules of the balance of chemical reactions, as absolute zero approaches.

As a result of the third law, the following quantities disappear to absolute zero: thermal capacity, thermal dilation coefficient and the relationship between thermal dilation and thermal compressibility. Despite the above disclaimer, S0-0 is often placed, i.e. if this is not changed in a given process, in which case the actual change in entropy does not depend on the value assigned to S0. A simple example can be seen as processes that do not involve nuclear transformations. Here, entropy is not modified to T-0, associated with the mixing of different isotope species. Therefore, for practical reasons, we can ignore this contribution and allow us to put effective entropy at absolute zero. However, of course, one must be very careful when determining whether the S0-0 setting is justified; Some counter-examples are mentioned in the Notes section.1 The third act provides an absolute reference point for determining entropy at any other temperature. The entropy of a closed system, relative to this zero point, is then the absolute entropy of this system. Mathematically, the absolute entropy of a zero-temperature system is the natural protocol of the number of constant Boltzmann kB soil conditions – 1.38×10-23 J K-1.

A non-quantitative description of his third law, which gave Nernst from the beginning, was simply that the specific heat can always be rendered null and void by cooling the material far enough away. [10] A modern quantitative analysis ensues.