The Doha Round Agreement

A number of provisions of the WTO agreements underline the need for technology transfer between developed and developing countries. Exploratory discussions for new global services negotiations, under the provisional title ISA, began on 17 January 2012 by 47 WTO members48. Although these negotiations are not conducted within the Framework of the Doha mandate, they are conducted by WTO members and could probably be integrated into the WTO system. This would facilitate the extension of the agreement to other WTO members and use the current WTO dispute settlement mechanism. The new discussions are seen as the result of frustration among some WTO members at the lack of progress in the services negotiations within the Doha Round negotiating structure. So far, advanced developing countries such as Brazil, China and India have not participated in the negotiations. The sixth WTO Ministerial Conference was held in Hong Kong from 13-18 December 2005. Although a flood of negotiations took place in the autumn of 2005, WTO Director-General Pascal Lamy announced in November 2005 that there would be no comprehensive agreement on the modalities in Hong Kong and that the discussions would “take stock” of the negotiations and attempt to reach agreements in negotiating areas where convergence was reported. [1] The 2005 impasse reinforced the importance of the 6th Minister in Hong Kong as the last potential opportunity to resolve important negotiating issues that could lead to an agreement by 2007, a de facto delay resulting from the imminent expiration of the U.S. Trade Promotion Authority.

Although a flood of negotiations took place in the autumn of 2005, WTO Director-General Pascal Lamy announced in November 2005 that there would be no comprehensive agreement on the modalities in Hong Kong and that the discussions would “take stock” of the negotiations and attempt to reach agreements in negotiating areas where convergence was reported. The final ministerial declaration of 18 December 2005 took into account the areas of the agreement in the areas of agriculture, industrial tariffs and duty-free access for the least developed countries (detail of the “Sector negotiations” section below). In general, these convergences have fallen one step beyond the July framework agreement, but have fallen short of the full negotiating modalities14. In a context of weakening global economy, terrorist measures and a growing number of regional trade agreements, trade ministers met in Doha. At that meeting, they adopted three documents that provided guidance for future actions. The Ministerial Declaration contains a preamble and work programme for the new round and for other future actions. This declaration has made ongoing negotiations in agriculture and services a broader agenda. This agenda includes industrial tariffs, issues of interest to developing countries, changes to WTO rules and other provisions.

The declaration on the TRIPS and Public Health Agreement contains a political interpretation of the WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) 6.A document on issues and concerns related to its implementation contains many decisions of interest to developing countries.7 31 July 2004, WTO members have approved a framework agreement that contains important developments on the most controversial and most controversial issue agriculture.13 which contains guidelines but does not contain specific concessions, is considered a great achievement.